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Популизм как общий вызов
Дисциплина: Политология
Объем: 128 стр.
Ответственный редактор: Кроуфорд К., Макаренко Б.И., Петров Н.В.
Перевод с немецкого: Кузавлева В.
Перевод на английский: Репко А., Репко Д., Ромео Э.
ISBN: 978-5-8243-2210-1
УДК: 32
ББК: 66.0
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Список литературы

1. Hawkins K., Dudley R., Wen Jie Tan. Made in US: Populism beyond Europe // Populism on the Rise: Democracies under Challenge? / ed. A. Martinelli. Milano: Edizioni Epoché, 2016. P. 113.
2. Urbinati N. Democracy Disfigured: Opinion, Truth and the People. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 2014. P. 131–145.
3. Populism on the Rise: Democracies under Challenge? / ed. A. Martinelli. Milano: Edizioni Epoché, 2016. P. 113.
4. Almond G., Verba S. The Civic Culture: Political Attitudes and Democracy in Five Nations. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1965.
5. Acemoğlu D., Robinson J. Economic Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2006.
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7. Populism on the Rise. P. 15.
8. Muddle C. Populist Radical Right Parties in Europe. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2007.
9. Inglehart R. Modernization and Post-Modernization: Cultural, Economic and Political Change in 43 Societies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1997. P. 243–246; Inglehart R., Norris P. Trump, Brexit and the Rise of Populism: Economic Have-Nots and Cultural Backlash. August 2016. URL: https://research.hks.harvard.edu/publications/workingpapers/Index.aspx
10. Lijphart A. Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Heaven: Yale University Press, 1999. P. 78–89.
11. Krastev I. The Unraveling of the Post-1989 Order // Journal of Democracy. 2016. Vol. 27. No. 4. P. 11.
12. Inglehart R., Norris P. Trump, Brexit and the Rise of Populism.
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14. Baunov A. Going to the People – and Back Again: The Changing Shape of the Russian Regime. М.: Carnegie Moscow Center, 2016. URL: http://carnegie.ru/2017/01/16/goingto-people-and-back-again-changing-shape-of-ru...
15. http://www.edinros.ru/news.html?id=111148
16. Gunther R., Diamond L. Species of Political Parties // Party Politics. 2003. Vol. 9. No. 2. P. 167–199.
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19. Minkenberg M. The Renewal of the Radical Right: Between Modernity and Anti-Modernity // Government and Opposition. 2000. Vol. 35. No. 2. P. 187.
20. Krastev I. The Unraveling of the Post-1989 Order. P. 13.
21. Urbinati N. Democracy Disfigured. P. 152.
22. https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/economic-populism-temporarysuccess-...
23. Fishman L. Pochemu postfordizm? Retsenziya na knigu: Postfordizm: kontseptsii, instituty, praktiki [Why Post-Fordism? Review of the book: Post-Fordism: Concepts, Institutions, Practices] / ed. M. S. Il’chenko, V. S. Mart’yanov. Мoscow: ROSSPEN, 2015. 279 p. // Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnie otnosheniya [The World Economy and International Relations]. 2016. No. 9. P. 125.
24. Vol’chik V. V., Posukhova O. Yu. Prekariat i professional’naya zanyatost’ v kontekste institutsional’nykh izmeneniy [The Precariat and Professional Employment in the Context of Institutional Changes] // Terra Economicus. 2016. Vol. 14. No. 2. P. 163.
25. Toshchenko Zh. T. Prekariat – noviy sotsial’niy kharakter [The Precariat – a New Social Character] // Sotsiologicheskiye issledovaniya [Sociological Researches]. 2015. No. 6. P. 3–13.
26. Standing G. Prekariat – noviy opasniy klass [The Precariat – the New Dangerous Class] / trans. N. Usova. Мoscow: Fond razvitiya i podderzhki iskusstva “AIRIS” [Fund for the Development and Support of Art “IRIS”], 2014. P. 23.
27. Crouch C. Post-Democracy / trans. from English. Мoscow: HSE Publishing House, 2010.
28. For more information, see: Koktysh K. E. Transformatsiya politicheskikh rezhimov v Respublike Belarus’, 1990–1991 [The Transformation of the Political Regimes in the Republic of Belarus, 1990–1991]. Мoscow: Moskovskiy obschestvenniy nauchniy fond [Moscow Public Scientific Fund], 2000. P. 80, 82. (Nauchniye doklady 108 [Scientific Reports 108]).
29. All participants in this project were in agreement with this thesis. It is presented in the articles of L. Gudkov, B. Makarenko, N. Petrov et al., despite the differences in their interpretation of the content of the populist phenomenon in Europe and Russia, and the possibility of giving it a specific definition.
30. Liberal’niye tsennosti i konservativniy trend v evropeyskoy politike i obshchestve [Liberal Values and the Conservative Trend in European Politics and Society]. Мoscow, 2015.
31. Mel’vil’ A. Yu. Konservativniy consensus v Rossii? Osnovniye komponenty, factory ustoichivosti, potentsial erozii [Conservative Consensus in Russia? Main Components, Stability Factors, Erosion Potential] // Politiya [Polity]. 2017. P. 29–45.
32. Konstitutsionniye printsipy i puti ikh realizatsii: rossiyskiy kontekst. Analiticheskiy doklad [Constitutional Principles and Paths to Their Realization / Achievement: Russian Context. Analytical Report]. Мoscow, 2014.
33. See materials on international discussion: Put’ v Evropu [The Road to Europe]. Мoscow, 2008.
34. Predlozheniya III Obshcherossiyskogo grazhdanskogo foruma 21–22 noyabrya 2015 g. [Proposals of the 3rd All-Russian Civil Forum, November 21–22, 2015]. Мoscow, 2015. P. 1.
35. Akhiezer A., Klyamkin I., Yakovenko I. Istoriya Rossii: konets ili novoye nachalo? [History of Russia: The End or a New Beginning?]. Мoscow, 2013. P. 428.
36. Medushevsky A. Conservative Political Romanticism in Post-Soviet Russia // Power and Legitimacy – Challenges from Russia. London; New York, 2012. P. 169–187.
37. Medushevskii A. Problems of Modernizing the Constitutional Order: Is It Necessary to Revise Russia’s Basic Law? // Russian Politics and Law. 2014. Vol. 52. No. 2. P. 44–59.
38. Cf.: Grabow K., Lange N. u. a. Spiel über Bande. Wie populistische EU-Gegner nationale Politik beeinflussen. Berlin: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, 2015. (Analysen und Argumente 168/2015).
39. Parts of this section are based on: Grabow K. Das Volk, des Volkes, dem Volk. Merkmale und Trends zum Begriff des Populismus // Die Politische Meinung. 2016. Jg. 61. Nr. 539. S. 23–27.
40. Pfahl-Traughber A. Populismus – was ist das überhaupt? Definition über eine inhaltliche und stilistische Dimension. URL: https://hpd.de/artikel/populismusueberhaupt-14116 (19.04.2017).
41. Betz H.-G. Exclusionary Populism in Austria, Italy and Switzerland // International Journal. 2001. Vol. 53. No. 3. P. 393–420.
42. Mudde C. The Populist Zeitgeist // Government and Opposition. 2004. Vol. 39. No. 4. P. 542.
43. Priester K. Wesensmerkmale des Populismus // Aus Politik und Zeitgeschichte. 2012. Nr. 5–6. S. 3–9.
44. See: Taggart P. Populism. Buckingham; Philadelphia: Open University Press, 2000. P. 95.
45. Müller J.-W. Was heißt: Populismus an der Macht? // Osteuropa. 2016. Jg. 66. H. 1–2. S. 5–17.
46. Grabow K., Hartleb F. Mapping Present-day Right-wing Populists // Exposing the Demagogues. Right-wing and National Populist Parties in Europe / ed. K. Grabow, F. Hartleb. Brussels: Centre for European Studies, 2013. P. 19.
47. Geert Wilders 2013, quoted after: Grabow K., Hartleb F. Europa? Nein Danke. Studie zum Aufstieg rechts- und nationalpopulistischer Parteien in Europa. Berlin; Sankt Augustin: Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung, 2013. S. 7.
48. Quoted after: Vilimsky: EU will noch mehr Macht zentralisieren. URL: http://www.fpoe.eu/vilimsky-eu-will-noch-mehr-macht-zentralisieren/ (03.05.2017).
49. Cf.: Österreich zuerst. Parteiprogramm der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs (FPÖ). Beschlossen vom Bundesparteitag der Freiheitlichen Partei Österreichs am 18. Juni 2011 in Graz; Steppat T. Niederlande-Wahlen: Wilders dreht wieder auf. URL: http://www.faz.net/aktuell/politik/ausland/niederlande-wahlen-wilders-dreht-wied... (25.04.2017).
50. Geert Wilders bezeichnet Marokkaner als «Abschaum» // Die Welt. 2017. 18. Februar. URL: https://www.welt.de/politik/ausland/article162193921/Geert-Wildersbezeichnet-Mar... (24.04.2017). 14 Ibid.
51. Banducci S., Stevens D. Myth versus Fact: Are We Living in a Post-Factual Democracy? // EU Referendum Analysis 2016: Media, Voters and the Campaign / ed. D. Jackson, E. Thorsen, D. Wring. Poole: Bournemouth University: The Centre for the Study of Journalism, Culture and Community, 2016. P. 22.
52. Leif T., Gensing P. Provokation statt Problemlösung. URL: https://www.tagesschau.de/inland/afd-strategiepapier-101.html (20.04.2017).
53. For details, see: Grabow K. Was tun gegen Rechtspopulisten? Europäische Erfahrungen. Berlin: Konrad-Adebauer-Stiftung, 2016. (Analysen und Argumente 203/2016).
54. On November 20th, 2003, journalist Alain Duhamel asked Nicolas Sarkozy: “Do you think about the Presidential elections, […] while shaving in the morning?” “And not only while shaving”, – said Sarkozy.
55. Ot pervogo litsa: Razgovory s Vladimirom Putinym [From the First-Person Perspective: Talks with Vladimir Putin]. M., 2000.
56. Кantorowicz Е. The King’s Two Bodies. Princeton, 1957.
57. http://discours.vie-publique.fr/notices/073001514.html
58. http://www.1tv.ru/news/2017-01-07/317417-vladimir_putin_russkaya_pravoslavnaya_t...
59. http://www.lemonde.fr/politique/article/2007/12/21/discours-du-president-de-lare...
60. Populism can lead to social changes caused by respective ideologies: in some cases, it helps to establish authoritarian or totalitarian regimes (as it did, at the beginning of the 20th century, in Italy, Russia, Germany, and in the CEE countries). In other cases, it facilitates the exit from a totalitarian state (as occurred in the late 1980s in the former socialist countries of Europe and in the USSR).
61. Obshchestvennoe Mnenie 2016 [Public Opinion 2016]: Annual report. Мoscow: Levada Center, 2017. P. 22, Table 2.13.
62. Ibid. Table 2.12.
63. Ibid. P. 53, Tables 4.13 and 4.12. Over the last 10 years, on average 60 % of Russians think that those in power are only interested in securing its power; twice-smaller the amount disagree with them – 28 %: Ibid. Table 4.14.
64. Parties of the “System” are: United Russia, the Communist Party of the Russian Federation, Liberal Democratic Party of Russia, and A Just Russia. These are parties that are allowed by the Kremlin administration to participate in elections, i. e. those given access to federal media. Also part of the “System” are approved opposition parties like Yabloko, Parnas and others.
65. Obshchestvennoe Mnenie 2016. P. 109–113, 117–121. Throughout 2006–2016 the majority of respondents (on average – 51 %) believed that there was no real choice during the elections, that what was provided was only an imaginary choice between the political parties, whereas on average 34 % of respondents disagreed with this position, insisting that the elections were fair and open: Ibid. P. 122. That is why, in 2000–2016, a minority (5–6 %) of Russians believed that elections have the power to force the government to do what the masses wanted: Ibid. P. 120, Table 11.14.
66. Ibid. P. 102, Table 9.4.3.
67. Ibid. P. 111, Table 10.7.
68. Exactly this understanding forms the basis of the repressive laws adopted in 2012–2016, limiting the rights of citizens to peacefully demonstrate, their freedom of speech, as well as limits placed on NGOs, and others. At the same time, more and more often the government views the exposing of corrupt politicians and high-ranking officials as attempts by the opposition to destabilize the political system and start a “color revolution”.
69. Obshchestvennoe Mnenie 2016. P. 92, Tables 9.2.10 and 9.2.11.
70. See: Obshchestvennoe Mnenie 2016. P. 84, Table 9.1.1.
71. See the detailed table of what Vladimir Putin “borrowed” from such political actors as Gennady Zyuganov, Vladimir Zhirinovsky, Alexander Lebed’, Yuri Luzhkov, Evgeniy Primakov, Anatoly Sobchak, Grigoriy Yavlinskiy: http://uchebnik.biz/book/255-sredstvamassovoj-informacii-postsovetskoj-rossii/26...
72. See: http://www.opoccuu.com/vodka-zena.htm
73. See: https://republic.ru/posts/83622
74. For more information on substitutes, see: Petrov N. Politicheskaya mekhanika rossiyskoy vlasti: substituty protiv institutov [Political Mechanism of Russian Power: Substitutes vs. Institutions] // Vestnik obshchestvennogo mneniya [Public Opinion Bulletin]. 2009. No. 4. P. 5–23. URL: http://www.levada.ru/sites/default/files/vom_2009.4_102.pdf
75. Koretskiy A. Ocherednoy populism ot yuzhnoural’skikh “edinorossov”: pensionery i mnogodetniye sem’i poluchat zhalkiye podachki [Another Populism from the South Ural United Russia: Pensioners and Large Families Will Get Pitifully Small Donations]. 27.07.2010. URL: http://www.uraldaily.ru/politika/2599.html
76. Leonov S. Yuzhnoural’skiye deputaty pribavili k byudzhetu milliard. Myakush: “Nuzhno srochno tratit’ den’gi” [Yuzhnouralsk Deputies Added a Billion to the Budget. Myakush: “We need to spend money urgently”]. 26.07.2010. URL: http://ura.ru/content/chel/26-07-2010/news/1052117275.html
77. http://www.orenburg.rfn.ru/rnews.html?id=34455 (04.02.2011); http://orenburg.edinros.ru/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1796:201...
78. Perechen’ obshchefederal’nikh voprosov Narodnogo referenduma, provodimogo KPRF v 2011 godu / Press-sluzhba TsK KPRF [List of Federal Issues of the People’s Referendum held by the Communist Party of the Russian Federation in 2011 / Press Service of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation]. 23.23.2010. URL: http://kprf.ru/rus_soc/86021.html
79. The pre-election program of “Spravedlivaya Rossiya” (A Just Russia). URL: http://komi.spravedlivo.ru/press/region_news/915.smx
80. http://rus.delfi.ee/daily/abroad/v-ingushetii-idet-akciya-ya-negolosoval.d?id=17...
81. Deputat Mikheev predlozhil zapretit’ kedy, baletki i shpil’ki [Deputy Mikheev offered to prohibit sneakers, ballet flats and high heels]. 19.06.2014. URL: https://www.novayagazeta.ru/news/2014/06/19/102079-deputat-miheev-predlozhil-zap...
82. Kynev A., Lyubarev A., Maximov A. Na podstupakh k federal’nym vyboram – 2016: regional’niye i mestniye vybory v Rossii 13 sentyabrya 2015 goda [Getting Closer to the Federal Elections – 2016: Regional and Local Elections in Russia on September 13, 2015]. Мoscow: Fond “Liberal’naya Missiya” [Liberal Mission Foundation], 2015.
83. http://gtmarket.ru/ratings/democracy-index/info
84. https://focus.ua/country/354230/
85. https://lb.ua/news/2016/08/10/342294_populizm_fenomen.html
86. http://news.liga.net/news/politics/14691048-groysman_timoshenko_mama_ukrainskoy_...
87. http://nv.ua/ukraine/politics/svoboda-pravyj-sektor-i-natsionalnyj-korpuspodpisa...

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